As more and more of the world’s languages become endangered, their documentation provides key resources for linguists and communities. Documentary linguists look to digital archives as an essential resource for ensuring the preservation, conservation, and access of the outcomes of their work. In this article, we consider the benefits and challenges associated with archiving in language documentation, relating to issues of preservation, conservation, access, ownership, and use of materials. We draw on our accumulated knowledge as scholars who are deeply involved in administering, contributing to, and using language archives, particularly relating to the indigenous languages of Latin America. We focus in particular on the relevance of language archiving in Brazil, and its significance for scholars, community members, and other stakeholders. Our discussion considers the steps that are needed to ensure the quality and longevity of resources; the principles and strategies by which archived materials may be made available; and ways in which language archives can inform ongoing work with indigenous languages. As we lay out here, language archives provide key resources for scholars and for communities who wish to revitalize, maintain, or simply remember their linguistic and cultural heritage.