Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration.
  • The manuscript was previously deposited in a preprint server that supports public commenting. DOI for the preprint is informed.
  • The authors observed all the principles of ethics and good practices described in the Author Guidelines.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • The submitted manuscript cites and references all data, program codes, and other materials that were used or generated in the research. Where available, URLs and DOI Codes for the references are to be provided.
  • In case the article is accepted for publication, the authors agree with the publication of reviews and responses to reviews as supplementary material to the published article.

Author Guidelines

Online Submissions

The author(s) must register (Login/Password) on the Journal's website, correctly complete their profiles, and choose the "AUTHOR" option. After performing these steps, they should go to "ACTIVE SUBMISSIONS" and start the submission process through the link "CLICK HERE TO START THE SUBMISSION PROCESS," in which they will perform the five basic steps:

  1. Start the submission process, confirming that they agree with the conditions established by the Journal (by checking the checkboxes of the conditions and the copyright declaration) and selecting the adequate section;
  2. Transfer the file to the system;
  3. Transfer files with supplementary information, such as a certificate of presentation, research instruments, data sets, tables, figures and/or tables that cannot be integrated into the text itself;
  4. Metadata: title of the paper, subtitle (if any), abstract, complete information of authors and co-authors, and keywords.
  5. Confirmation: complete the submission.

After completing the five steps described above, the author(s) must wait for the Editor's email. These are the following steps:

  1. If the article complies with the formatting rules of the Journal, it will be inserted into the editorial process. If the article does not comply with the Journal's formatting rules, it will be rejected. The motivation for the rejection is sent exclusively by email. It is the responsibility of the authors: to keep their email addresses updated on the platform and always check their email accounts, including the spam box, for automatic notifications from our system. Please note that some email servers (such as Hotmail) automatically flag messages from OJS as spam; you should avoid using such servers if you wish to receive updates on the reviewing process by email or change the configuration of your spam filter. The Editorial Team is not responsible for any communication failures or errors in the emails registered in our database.
  2. Once the manuscript is inserted in the editorial process, authors must follow the submission steps through the platform.
  3. Articles inserted in the editorial process will be forwarded to at least two specialists for double-unblind reviews. If modifications are requested in the paper, the author(s) must, within 15 calendar days, count from the date of the "Editorial Decision," edit the article and send the new version through the "Assessments" tab in the system.
  4. If reviewers' decision is contradictory, another reviewer will be selected by the Editor to evaluate the paper.
  5. When the evaluation process is completed, the editorial committee will send a formal decision to the authors.
  6. If the paper is accepted but modifications are requested, the author(s) must, within five calendar days from the request for changes, make the necessary adjustments and send the paper back to the Journal, inserting the file in the system by opening a new conversation in "Evaluation Discussion."

General Information

  1. Cad_Lin will only publish papers that have previously been presented at events organized by the Brazilian Linguistics Association. The manuscript must have the same title and the same authorship shown in the presentation certificate, which must be submitted along with the manuscript. If there is any inconsistency in information, a justification must be provided.
  2. Submissions are evaluated by the editorial team of Cad_Lin, which may or may not correspond to the scientific committee of the Abralin event in which the paper was presented.
  3. Authors are required ​to review the standards available for many research applications from the Equator Network ​and use those that are relevant for the reported research applications. At manuscript submission, authors must confirm that they reviewed the standards, report whether any standards were relevant for the research application, and confirm that they followed those standards in the manuscript. The journal will verify that the appropriate standards were adopted and followed. Failure to follow the relevant standards may result in the paper not being published.
  4. Before submitting the manuscripts to Cad_Lin, the authors must conduct a careful textual revision. The editors and/or reviewers of the Journal will not make any textual revisions.
  5. The submitted manuscript cites and references all data, program codes, and other materials that were used or generated in the research. Articles will not be published until the citations conform to these standards.
  6. Authors who submit a paper will automatically declare that ethical principles have been observed, as well as the legal requirements related to ethics in research, both in the country where they maintain their institutional bond and in the country where the people participating in the research live.
  7. All authors must obtain for free an ORCID identifier at https://orcid.org/register and register in the Cad_Lin system, filling out the entire profile.
  8. Cadernos de Linguística is committed to the practices established by the guidelines of Open Science. The evaluation process of Cadernos de Linguística is open and transparent: the author(s) and the reviewers are not anonymous to each other. Reviews, along with comments made to them, will be published as supplementary material to the article if the article is accepted for publication. In addition, the names of the reviewers will be registered in the published article. When submitting an article to Cadernos de Linguística, the authors are automatically declaring that they agree with these practices.
  9. The Brazilian Linguistics Association is a signatory of the Helsinki Initiative on Multilingualism in Scientific Communication. The signatories of this initiative support the promotion of linguistic diversity through the publication of research in all languages. Cad_Lin receives submissions in any language. If authors submit a paper written in languages other than Portuguese, Spanish, French, and English, they should indicate a list of at least five possible reviewers, along with their email and professional website address, where their recent publications are listed.
  10. Cad_Lin seeks to publish research that "tells it like it is." Authors should not feel feel the pressure to present unexpected findings as if they were expected. If the results do not support a hypothesis, authors should simply state that they do not. Although it is not compulsory, it has been observed that researchers benefit from preregistering their hypotheses and designs since it allows them to clearly express what the hypotheses were at the start of the experiment.
  11. Papers accepted for publication in Cad_Lin may be accompanied by badges from the Center for Open Science that recognize open scientific practice: (a) publicly available data, (b) publicly available materials, and (c) pre-registered research plans. If you would like more information on how to obtain an open science practice badge, please read the following documentation. To request the inclusion of one of these badges, authors should fill out the Application for Open Scientific Practices Badges, available here.

Research Ethics

Cad_Lin defends the principles of the declaration of ethics and good practices in publication, based on the Code of Conduct and Standards of Good Practice for Committee Editors of the Committee on Ethics in Publication - COPE.

  1. Authorship. Submitted papers must be original and not have been published or submitted to any other journal or book. At the time of submission, the author(s) must express agreement with the statement above. Authorship rights are limited to those who contributed significantly to the development of the research, data interpretation, and the development of the article and must be acknowledged following the CRediT taxonomy.

  2. Plagiarism. All submissions are checked for plagiarism using the industry standard software (Plagium before reviewing and iThenticate after acceptance). If similarities are detected after the manuscript screening, a full report will be sent to the author with a request for clarification. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and manuscripts will be rejected or papers withdrawn after publication based on unethical actions by the authors. Particular attention should be placed on text recycling. Cad_Lin adopts the TRRP Policy for Text Recycling, which authors should read before submitting a manuscript.

  3. Conflict of Interest. Authors and reviewers must explicitly and individually declare any potential conflict of interest of financial, political, academic, or commercial origin. Please refer to Cad_Lin's Conflict of Interest Policy for details.

  4. Ethics and Consent. Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data must have been conducted in accordance with the principles of respect of persons, beneficence, and justice as outlined by the Belmont Report. Where applicable, the studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee, and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject should be anonymized whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardians).

Data, Analytic Methods (Code), and Research Materials Transparency

The policy of the Cad_Lin is to publish papers only if the data, methods used in the analysis, and materials used to conduct the research are clearly and precisely documented and are maximally available to any researcher for purposes of reproducing the results or replicating the procedure. All materials supporting the claims made by the author must be made available to the journal prior to publication. The journal will verify that the findings are replicable using the author’s data and methods of analysis. Failure to replicate at this stage may result in the paper not being published.

  1. Authors reusing data available from public repositories must provide program code, scripts for statistical packages, and other documentation sufficient to allow an informed researcher to precisely reproduce all published results.
  2. Authors using original data should follow a previously prepared data management plan. We recommend using the DPMTool to create an efficient data management plan and the recommendations in the 10 Things for Curating Reproducible and FAIR Research. Authors using original data must
    1. make the data available at a trusted digital repository (Note: If all data required to reproduce the reported analyses appears in the article text, tables, and figures then it does not also need to be posted to a repository.)
    2. include all variables, treatment conditions, and observations described in the manuscript
    3. provide a full account of the procedures used to collect, preprocess, clean, or generate the data
    4. provide program code, scripts, codebooks, and other documentation sufficient to precisely reproduce all published results
    5. provide research materials and description of procedures necessary to conduct an independent replication of the research
  3. In rare cases, despite authors’ best efforts, some or all data or materials cannot be shared for legal or ethical reasons. In such cases, authors must inform the editors at the time of submission. This will be taken into account during the review process. Authors are encouraged to anticipate data and material sharing at the beginning of their projects to provide for these circumstances. It is understood that in some cases access will be provided under restrictions to protect confidential or proprietary information. Editors may grant exceptions to data and material access requirements provided authors:
    1. explain the restrictions on the dataset or materials and how they preclude public access.
    2. provide a public description of the steps others should follow to request access to the data or materials.
    3. provide software and other documentation that will precisely reproduce all published results.
    4. provide access to all data and materials for which the constraints do not apply.
  4. Data, program code, research materials, and other documentation of the research process should be made available through a trusted digital repository. Trusted repositories adhere to policies that make data discoverable, accessible, usable, and preserved for the long term. Trusted repositories also assign unique and persistent identifiers. The General Repository Comparison Chart and FAIRsharing Collection developed a tool researchers can use to make decisions about selecting a general repository. Author-maintained websites are not compliant with this requirement.
    1. Dissemination of these materials may be delayed until publication. Under exceptional circumstances, editors may grant an embargo of the public release of data for at most one year after publication.
    2. Articles accepted for publication will not be assigned a publication date until the above conditions have been met. Authors are responsible for ensuring that their articles continue to meet these conditions. Failure to do so may lead to an editorial expression of concern or retraction of the article.

Preregistration of Analysis Plans

The policy of the Cad_Lin is to publish papers where authors indicate whether or not the conducted research was preregistered with or without an analysis plan in an independent, institutional registry (e.g., ClinicalTrials.gov, AEA RCT Registry, OSF, EGAP Registry, RIDIE)​. Preregistration of studies involves registering the study design, variables, and treatment conditions. Including an analysis plan involves specification of sequence of analyses or the statistical model that will be reported. ​link to the preregistration in an institutional registry must be made available to the journal prior to publication. The journal will verify that preregistration adheres to the specifications for preregistration and then if the authors apply for it, a certification of the preregistration​in will be included in the article.

If the authors did preregister the research with or without an analysis plan, they must (i) confirm in the text that the study was registered prior to conducting the research with links to the time­stamped preregistrations at the institutional registry, and that the preregistration adheres to the disclosure requirements of the institutional registry; (ii) report all pre­registered analyses in the text. In case an analysis plan is included, the authors must report if there were changes in the plan following preregistration. Those changes must be disclosed with explanation for the changes. Finally, the authors must clearly distinguish in text analyses that were preregistered from those that were not, such as having separate sections in the results for confirmatory and exploratory analyses.

Replication

The policy of Cad_Lin is to encourage submission of replication studies, particularly of research published in this journal. When possible, replication studies are reviewed in two stages following the R​egistered Reports​ format. In particular, the first stage of review is conducted prior to the data being collected or, for existing datasets, before the outcomes are observed.

On initial submission, authors should denote in a cover letter that the manuscript is Registered Report submission and confirm that the data do not exist, or that the outcomes have not been observed, and include a full manuscript for the abstract, introduction, and methods without the results and discussion sections. The methods must contain a complete analysis plan of what is to be included in the full article. If the submission passes initial review, then the authors will receive an in­principle acceptance prior to data collection or analysis of the outcomes. For the second stage of review, authors submit a complete manuscript. Reviewers assess the extent to which the authors followed the preregistered design and/or analysis plan and evaluate non­outcome relevant criteria (e.g., manipulation checks) to confirm whether the research was an effective test of the research question.

Brandt, et al. (2014) offer helpful guidelines for convincing replications, which we strongly encourage authors to read before undertaking a replication project. Cad_Lin encourages authors to approach replications in a value-neutral way. If an experiment does not replicate it does not indicate that the results from the original experiment should now be considered invalid and it certainly does not imply that the original research team did anything “wrong.”

Preprint and Open Peer Review

Manuscripts submitted to Cad_Lin must be previously deposited in a preprint server that supports public commenting. 

Categories of contribution

Cadernos de Linguística accepts submissions in the following categories:

  1. Experience Report: Complete and concise report of professional experience, of social and scientific relevance, and with results even if partial.

  2. Interview: Structured or semi-structured conversational exchange that seeks to engage one or more individuals to draw out previously unarticulated, supplementary, or biographical dimensions of the interviewee’s critical thought, practice, body of work, etc.
  3. Literature Review: Summaries of research or meta-analyses, with a critical evaluation of material already published, explaining possible gaps and advances in the area in focus. Ideally, the text should describe the search bases and criteria for performing this search, the period and descriptors considered and the method of analysis of the material found.

  4. Theoretical Essay: Analysis of theoretical constructs and discussion of themes and problems of theoretical fundamentals leading to the questioning of existing models, critical reflection on themes or concepts, culminating in notes that suggest a critical and innovative perspective in the field of Linguistics and its interfaces.

  5. Pilot Study: A small-scale preliminary study report originating from empirical evidence-based research using scientific methodology that aims to investigate whether the crucial components of a major study will be feasible.

  6. Project Registration: Complete description of a research project, explaining (i) the research design and study materials; (ii) the research question or hypothesis; (iii) the description of the variable results and the indicator variables, etc.

  7. Research Report: Final report of work originating from research based on empirical data, using scientific methodology.

  8. Registered Report: A format of empirical article where a study proposal is reviewed before the research is undertaken. Pre-registered proposals that meet high scientific standards are then provisionally accepted before the outcomes are known, independently of the results.
  9. Tutorial: Text with the purpose of describing in a didactic way and through examples detailed information to complete a given task.

  10. Replication: A replication study involves repeating a study using the same methods but with different subjects and experimenters. The researchers will apply the existing theory to new situations in order to determine generalizability to different subjects or any other variables. 

Structure and Formatting of Papers

  1. We recommend using either the MS Word template supplied here or the LaTex template supplied here (or available on Overleaf) when preparing the article.
  2. The paper must be typed in a format that is either open or compatible with MS Word, have from 12 to 30 pages, including the References, and formatted as follows:
    1. pages configured in A4 format, without numbers, with 2.5 cm margins;
    2. text formatted in one column, Times New Roman font, size 12, with 1.5cm spacing between lines from the Introduction section (except in References, which have single spacing between lines) and indentation of the first line of 1.25 cm (except in References and section titles, which are left-justified and should not be indented);
    3. all text typed before the first section (1. Introduction) must be formatted with single spacing between lines.
  3. Papers will be presented according to the following sequential organization:
    1. TITLE OF THE MANUSCRIPT (same font and size of the text, typed in the same language as the text, in upper case, centered, and in bold; please underline two or three words in the title that should be highlighted).
    2. TITLE OF MANUSCRIPT IN A DIFFERENT LANGUAGE FROM THE TEXT (with the same formatting of the TITLE OF THE MANUSCRIPT, and separated from it by two blank lines by pressing the "Enter" key twice, which should also be done to separate the title in a foreign language from the type of contribution).
    3. Type of Contribution (same font and size of text, left-aligned, in bold, only the first letter capitalized): Theoretical Essay, Pilot Study, Project Registry, Experience Report, Research Report, Literature Review, Tutorial. Press the "Enter" key twice after the Contribution Type.
    4. Author(s) (same font and size of the text, left-aligned, in bold, only the first letter in capital letters. In the case of more than one author, the first will be considered the author and the other co-authors; their names must be separated with an "Enter" between them. A footnote should be inserted indicating the following information about the authors, separated by a period: title, affiliation (university, school, department, etc), city, state, country, email, iD ORCID, and, in the case of co-authorship, the roles of each author in the production of the article, according to CRediT taxonomy). Press the "Enter" key twice after the last author's name.
    5. ABSTRACT (same font and size as the text, typed in uppercase, justified alignment, in bold). The text of the ABSTRACT must be typed in the same font and size as the text, written in the language of the manuscript, with only the first letter capitalized, without bold, in only one paragraph of text, containing 150 to 250 words. When appropriate, it should present the objective(s) of the research, the methodology, and the main results).
    6. KEYWORDS (separated from the ABSTRACT with an "Enter." There must be 3 to 5 keywords separated by a dot, written in the language of the manuscript, and typed in the same font and size as the text, with only the first letter capitalized).
    7. ABSTRACT (separated from KEYWORDS with two lines by pressing "Enter." ABSTRACT in a different language of the manuscript, following the same characteristics described above for the abstract in the language of the manuscript).
    8. KEYWORDS (separated from ABSTRACT with one line by pressing "Enter." KEYWORDS in a different language from the manuscript, following the same characteristics described above for the keywords in the language of the manuscript).
    9. LAY SUMMARY (separated from KEYWORDS with two lines by pressing "Enter." The lay summary should summarize the focus and findings of the article using non-technical terminology as it is intended to make the work of the author(s) accessible to the interested non-expert. The text in the lay summary should be written so that it will be accessible to a non-academic person. The lay summary should be no longer than 200 words, in only one paragraph of text, . As with the main abstract, avoid citations, acronyms, and abbreviations. Please read our Lay Summary Guidelines).
    10. Section titles (e.g., Introduction, Section on theoretical background, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion). Section titles should be numbered (except for Introduction, Acknowledgments, if any, and References), formatted in bold, only the first initial capital letter, and separated from the text before and after it by a blank line (one "Enter").
  4. The illustrations (Tables, Graphs, Figures, Tables) should have their legends and contents in the text font, size 10, without bold. The legend (title) of each illustration should begin with the name of the illustration to which it refers (in bold), numbered sequentially (for example Table 1., Table 2., Graph 1., Graph 2.), and inserted below the illustration. The source should be cited (in case of previously published illustrations). All illustrations should be inserted in the body of the text immediately after the paragraph in which they are cited and not in the form of annexes. Please try to use grayscale illustrations whenever possible. If you have to use colored images, please make sure that they are friendly to colorblind people.
  5. Special symbols must be typed in Unicode. For information on phonetic fonts in Unicode, visit the SIL website.
  6. Italics should only be used to mark words or phrases in a language other than that used in the body of the text.
  7. The notes should appear as footnotes rather than endnotes and be restricted to content, not to citations. Times New Roman font, size 10.
  8. Acknowledgments and mention of research funding (scholarships, financial aid, and the respective funding agencies) that enabled the research should not be included in a footnote but in an Acknowledgments section at the end of the article before the References.
  9. The citations should follow the ABNT norms. Examples of citations:
    1. In indirect citations (paraphrases), the author should be cited in parentheses by last name, in capital letters, separated by a comma from the year of publication (SWERTS, 1997). If the name of the author is cited in the text, only the year should be indicated in parentheses: According to Oliveira Jr (2000), [...].
    2. When it is necessary to specify the page in the case of direct quotations, the page number should follow the year, separated by a comma and preceded by p. (OLIVEIRA JR, 2000, p. 95). Direct quotations of up to three lines are made inside the text in double quotation marks, while direct quotations of more than three lines should be separated from the text with a 4cm indentation to the left, font size 10, without quotation marks, and without indentation of the first line.
    3. The citations of several works by the same author published in the same year should be distinguished by lower case letters after the year without a space (FERREIRA, 2007a). 
    4. When the work has two or three authors, all may be indicated, separated by semicolons (HUETTIG; ROMMERS; MEYER, 2011); when there are more than three authors, the first name is indicated, followed by et al. (ALMEIDA et al., 2013). In this case, it is advisable to indicate all authors in the References.
  10. After the main text but before the reference list, the following information must be included, when applicable.
    1. Competing interests (required)
      If any of the authors have any competing interests, then these must be declared. Information about competing interests can be found here. If there are no competing interests to declare, then the following statement must appear in this section: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. If there are competing interests to declare, complete the following statement: The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: [LIST HERE].
    2. Link to Preprint (required)
      Manuscripts submitted to Cad_Lin must be previously deposited in a preprint server that supports public commenting. A DOI to the preprint must be provided in this section.
    3. Research Preregistration and Standards (required)
      Authors are required to review the standards available for many research applications from the Equator Network and use those that are relevant for the reported research applications. Authors must confirm in this section that they reviewed the standards, report whether any standards were relevant for the research application, and confirm that they followed those standards in the manuscript. Authors must also indicate in this section whether or not the conducted research was preregistered with or without an analysis plan in an independent, institutional registry. Not required for interviews.
    4. Data Accessibility Statement (required)
      Cad_Lin requires authors to make all data, codes, and materials necessary to replicate their study’s findings publicly available without restriction at the time of publication. When specific legal or ethical restrictions prohibit public sharing of a data set, authors must indicate how others may obtain access to the data. When submitting a manuscript, authors must provide a Data Availability Statement, providing information on how to access the data, codes, and materials associated with the manuscript, including DOI. Instructions for this statement can be found in the MS Word template. Not required for interviews.
    5. Ethics and consent (if applicable)
      Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data must have been conducted in accordance with the principles of respect of persons, beneficence, and justice as outlined by the Belmont Report. Where applicable, the studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee, and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject should be anonymized whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardians).
    6. Acknowledgments (optional)

      Any acknowledgments must have a header and be placed in their own paragraph.
    7. Disclosure of Funding Sources (if applicable)
      Authors are required to declare what support they received to carry out their research. Declaring funding sources acknowledges funders' contributions, fulfills funding requirements, and promotes greater transparency in the research process. Please inform the funding agency and the funding award number.
  11. The References at the end of the text must also comply with ABNT norms. We strongly recommend that authors cite and discuss a fair representation of relevant work by members of under-represented groups. Note that we do not place a limit on the number of references in research articles, so you are free to include whatever references and citations you think are relevant. All and only the works of authors cited in the text should appear in the References, which are typed in simple spacing between lines, separated by a simple space, and organized in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. Whenever there are any, the authors should inform URLs and DOIs of the references used. Examples of References:
    1. Books
      BARBOSA, Plínio Almeida; MADUREIRA, Sandra. Manual de fonética acústica experimental: aplicação a dados do português. São Paulo: Cortez, 2015.
    2. Book chapters
      MORAES, João Antônio de; RILLIARD, Albert. Prosody and Emotion in Brazilian Portuguese. In: ARMSTRONG, Meghan E.; HENRIKSEN, Nicholas; VANRELL, Maria del Mar. Intonational Grammar in Ibero-Romance: Approaches across linguistic subfields. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2016, p. 135-152.
    3. Dissertation
      SILVA, Juliana Preisser de Godoy e. Análise dos aspectos prosódicos na expressão da certeza e da dúvida no português brasileiro. 171 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Linguística) – Faculdade de Letras, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 2008.
      TENANI, Luciani Ester. Domínios Prosódicos no Português do Brasil: implicações para a prosódia e para a aplicação de processos fonológicos. 331 f. Tese (Doutorado em Linguística) – Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 2002.
    4. Papers in journals
      MATTHEWSON, Lisa. On the methodology of semantic fieldwork. International Journal of American Linguistics, v. 70, n. 4, p. 369-415, 2004.
    5. Papers in proceedings
      PASSETTI, Renata Regina; BARBOSA, Plínio Almeida. O efeito do telefone celular no sinal da fala: uma análise fonético-acústica com implicações para a verificação de locutor em português brasileiro. In: Colóquio Brasileiro de Prosódia da Fala, 5., 2015, Ceilândia. Anais [...]. Ceilândia: UnB. p. 13-16.
      KOREMAN, Jacques; ANDREEVA, Bistra; BARRY, William. Accentuation cues in French and German. In: International Conference on Speech Prosody, 4., 2008, Campinas. Proceedings [...]. Campinas: Unicamp. p. 613-616.
    6. Electronic papers
      KAMEYAMA, Megumi. Indefeasible semantics and defeasible pragmatics, 1995. Disponível em: http://arxiv.org/pdf/cmp-lg/9506016.pdf. Acesso em: 14 jan. 2016.